Dennis L. Cuddy, Ph.D.
March 16, 2015
In HORACE MANN : EDUCAT0NAL STATESMAN, E.I.F. Williams related that Robert Owen "brought William McClure, 'father of American geology,' to organize his school. He first introduced the Pestalozzian system into the United States....Later, the Pestalozzian movement spread to other sections (of the country), and among its enthusiastic champions were Horace Mann....Very soon (after New Harmony) another society based on Owen's principles was begun at Yellow Springs, Ohio, where Antioch College was to be founded." Horace Mann was president of Antioch College from 1853 until his death on August 2, 1859. In 1837, Mann had established the first "normal" (public) school in the United States as part of his effort to promote non-sectarian education.
In 1848, the COMMUNIST MANIFESTO was published, including Plank No. 10, which provided for a "Combination of education with industrial production" (a type of school-to-work approach). Nine years later in 1857, the National Education Association (NEA, until 1870 called the National Teachers Association) was founded and emphasized the importance of teachers in children's education. Following this, California State Superintendent of Public Instruction John Swett in 1864 declared: "The vulgar impression that parents have a legal right to dictate to teachers is entirely erroneous...."
In 1879, Illuminati member Kirchenrat Karl Kasimir Wundt's (code name Raphael) grandson, Wilhelm Wundt established the first laboratory in experimental psychology at the University of Leipzig (Pavlov studied there in 1884). The first of his American students was G. Stanley Hall, who would become John Dewey's mentor at Johns Hopkins University (where Dewey received his doctorate in 1884). Educational experimentalists James McKeen Cattell, Charles Judd and James Earl Russell also received doctorates from Wundt. Dewey later become known as the "Father of Progressive Education," even though Dewey himself used that appellation in reference to Francis Parker, who had studied the ideas of Pestalozzi when in Europe.
Twelve years after receiving his doctorate, Dewey established in January 1896 his own laboratory school at the University of Chicago, an institution of higher learning well-endowed by John D. Rockefeller, Sr. This oil magnate in 1902 chartered the General Education Board, and appointed Frederick Gates (a Baptist minister) as chairman. Gates wrote Occasional Letter, No. 1 (published in THE WORLD'S WORK in 1912) in which he remarked: "In our dream, we have limitless resources, and the people yield themselves with perfect docility to our molding hand. The present educational conventions fade from our minds; and, unhampered by tradition, we work our own good will upon a grateful and responsive rural folk."
On October 12, 1917, THE NEW YORK TIMES published Judge John Hylan's comments about a letter by Dr. Abraham Flexner (Secretary of the General Education Board and formerly of the Carnegie Foundation describing a "secret conference" of New York City Board of Education's members to elect a board president who would institute a type of school-to-work outcome-based education program. Five years later, THE NEW YORK TIMES (March 27, 1922) covered a speech by Judge Hylan after he had become mayor of New York City.
In the speech, Mayor Hylan said: "The warning of Theodore Roosevelt has much timeliness today, for the real menace of our republic is this invisible government which like a giant octopus sprawls its slimy length over city, State and nation....The little coterie of powerful international bankers virtually run the United States Government for their own selfish purposes....These international bankers and Rockefeller-Standard Oil interests control the majority of newspapers and magazines in this country." Mayor Hylan quoted from Frederick Gates' paper mentioned above, and then said "This is the kind of education the coolies receive in China, but we are not going to stand for it in these United States. One of my first acts as Mayor was to pitch out, bag and baggage, from the educational system of our city the Rockefeller agents and the Gary plan of education to fit the children for the mill and factory."
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